String theory in its development went through several stages: at first it was just string theory, then superstring theories, then M-theory, a kind of «theory of everything.»
The main goal of the theorists who invented these theories was to «overcome» the incompatibility of Einstein’s theories of relativity with quantum mechanics …
Einstein’s general theory of relativity is based on the postulates that the «space-time continuum» has no structure of its own. Mathematicians who invented quantum mechanics postulated in space all sorts of virtual particles, fields, quantum fluctuations and other quantum foam, which for almost a century, intensively consuming coffee and other stimulants of genius, they seemed to be “looking for” for a long time.
Obviously, no one has found this nonsense anywhere.
In 1968, theorist Gabriele Veneziano invented additional nonsense, in the form of string theory, for which the four-dimensional Einstein space became, as it were, insufficient. This happened when, looking at the formulas in old books, he suddenly saw that Euler’s beta function, which describes the vibrations of strings, supposedly describes the strong interaction well. The idea was taken up by the mystic followers Yoichiro Nambu, Holger Nielsen and Leonard Süskind.
Various fabrications within the framework of the idea of strings allegedly explained the sizes and masses of particles, the ways of exchanging their energies, and different constants. However, as a consequence of this theory, tachyons appeared — particles with negative mass and speeds many times higher than the speed of light.
How many stimulants of genius had to be taken in three years to sort of solve the problems that had arisen is unknown, but during this time string theory was transformed into superstring theory, in which all the main particles of the standard model appeared, tachyons turned out to be unnecessary, and it was postulated «Supersymmetry» (Golfand and Lichtman, Gervais and Sakita).
This crap has become the theoretical basis for the construction of the Large Hadron Collider.
While the Large Hadron Collider was converting electricity into heat, theorists were tormented by the formulas of quantum mechanics that were in no way compatible with superstring theory. Someone stumbled upon the fabrications of a certain mathematician Kaluza, reworked by Klein, lying in the archives, which, as it were, combined Einstein’s theories and ideas about Maxwell’s fields.
According to Kaluza-Klein, the dimensions outside the observed three must be in a convoluted form, this determines the sizes of elementary particles and forms the fifth-dimensional world of Kaluza-Klein.
Applying the Kaluza-Klein ideas, theorists including Green and Schwartz «understood» the structure of superstrings by increasing the number of dimensions to nine plus time. And they said that in this form, superstring theory finally «combined» quantum mechanics and relativism.
According to superstring theory, we can observe three dimensions, we can understand time, and six dimensions are curled up so that we cannot somehow touch them with the help of instruments. The only tools for «knowing» superstrings are formulas. For example, the «Yau manifolds» created by the Chinese mathematician Yau.
However, like any contrived theory, superstring theory was quickly pulled apart by theorists into several incompatible theories that claimed to be true.
The next breakthrough beyond the limits of rationality in the development of the theory of superstrings was a theory called M-theory, which operated at first with eleven dimensions, but the formulas indicated that there could be twenty-six dimensions. This theory somehow united all the previous ones. But in addition to strings, it has two-dimensional string-like membranes, three-dimensional, and four-dimensional branes.
In general, this theory opened up a wide field for pseudoscientists to write various “scientific” works, because these works can be “understandable” only for their authors, the super-complexity of formulas has removed all skeptics and critics from their “creative” horizon within the “scientific” community.
The «world mind» (god) of theorists from Microsoft is a living, developing and self-learning «universe». Such their inventions were published…